Ongoing . Turkey Syrian National Army since Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant.
Syrian government. Syrian Democratic Forces. Syrian : 1 pilot killed  soldiers killed     20 captured.
Operation Euphrates Shield. Turkey has been diplomatically and militarily involved in the Syrian Civil War since its outbreak in Initially condemning the Syrian government at the outbreak of civil unrest in Syria during the spring of ,  the Turkish government's involvement gradually evolved into military assistance for the Free Syrian Army in July ,  border clashes in ,  and direct military interventions in ,    in ,  and in After a decade of relatively friendly relations with Syria during the prior decade, Turkey condemned Syrian president Bashar al-Assad over the violent crackdown on protests in  and later that year joined a number of other countries demanding his resignation.
Tensions between Syria and Turkey significantly worsened after Syrian forces shot down a Turkish fighter jet in June , and border clashes erupted in October Human rights groups, including the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights and Human Rights Watch have reported that Turkish troops have killed civilians fleeing the civil war in Syria.
Turkey also provided refuge for Syrian dissidents.
Turkey-Syria border News
Three out of four Turks said that Syrian refugees should return to Syria "even if the war continues". The Turkish Parliament's refusal to cooperate militarily with the invasion of Iraq was a turning point in Syrian-Turkish bilateral relations as Syria's perceptions of Turkey as incapable of acting independently were altered. At the beginning of the Syrian Civil War, Turkey trained defectors of the Syrian Army on its territory, and in July , a group of them announced the birth of the Free Syrian Army , under the supervision of Turkish intelligence.
Together with Saudi Arabia and Qatar , Turkey has also provided the rebels with arms and other military equipment. It also reported that some rebels and officials say that material support in the form of money and weapons to the Islamist groups was being given by Saudis with Turkey facilitating its passage. Turkey had reportedly criticised designation of the Nusra Front as a terrorist organisation.
Turkey's designation of the Nusra Front as a terrorist group since June was seen as an indication of it giving up on the group. He said that he tried to persuade the Turkish government to close its borders to the groups, but to no avail.
The Sydney Morning Herald
RT reported in March that al-Nusra had pitched their camps along the Turkish border and regularly receives supply from the Turkish side near the border town of Azaz.
While filming a number of vehicles coming from the Turkish side through the Bab al-Salam crossing to Azaz, the RT crew reported that Turkish military vehicles were at most a kilometre away from them. Al-Dhari was reported to have "provided operational guidance, financial support, and other services to or in support of al-Qaeda in Iraq.
Arab media stated that the village of Az-Zanbaqi in Jisr al-Shughur 's countryside has become a base for a massive amount of Uyghur Turkistan Islamic Party militants and their families in Syria, estimated at around 3, They further stated the Turkish intelligence was being involved in transporting these Uyghurs via Turkey to Syria, with the aim of using them first in Syria to help Jabhat Al-Nusra and gain combat experience fighting against the Syrian Army before sending them back to Xinjiang to fight against China if they manage to survive.
In response, a couple of days later offices of Koza İpek Media Group, the owner of the newspaper, were raided by Turkish police. The crossing was used for smuggling and for arms transfers.
In April an article was published by Foreign Policy in which it was stated that in alone, some 30, militants traversed Turkish soil, establishing the so-called jihadi highway, as the country became a conduit for fighters seeking to join the Islamic State. Furthermore it was stated that wounded Islamic State militants were treated for free at hospitals across southeastern Turkey. Among those receiving care was one of the top deputies of Islamic State chieftain Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, Ahmet el-H, who was treated in a private hospital in Sanliurfa in August On 7 July , reports surfaced that Turkish security forces seized a truck bound for Syria loaded with 10, detonators and explosive primers with total length of , metres , feet in Akcakale, Sanliurfa province, southeastern Turkey.
Why Turkey is invading Syria
Five people were arrested. The detainees said they attempted crossing the border from the village of Aegean into Tal Abyad city in the Al-Raqqah Province. The three suicide bombers opened fire at passengers before blowing themselves up.
Turkish artillery strikes killed over 54 ISIL militants on April ,     whilst 5 people were killed and 22 others were wounded by ISIL rocket projectiles hitting the border province of Kilis. Department of State. According to Turkey, such moves would push ISIL militants southwards, leaving the border province of Kilis out of battery ranges. Also, in the morning hours, the Turkish military carried out four separate air strikes against ISIL positions in northern Syria, as part of a joint effort and intelligence with the U.
Turkish armed forces responded to the attack by shelling ISIL targets with howitzers from the border. Army shelled them. A total of 55 ISIL militants were killed in the shellings, while three vehicles and three rocket launchers belonging to the jihadist group were also destroyed.
Numerous incidents along the Syrian—Turkish border have taken place during the Syrian Civil War , straining the relations between the countries and resulting in dozens of civilians and military personnel killed. Syria has repreatedly urged UN Security Council action to "put an end to the crimes of the Turkish regime".
Turkey has received the co-chair of Rojava 's leading Democratic Union Party PYD , Salih Muslim , for talks in  and in ,  even entertaining the idea of opening a Rojava representation office in Ankara "if it's suitable with Ankara's policies. Turkey's policy towards Rojava is based on an economic blockade,  persistent attempts of international isolation,  opposition to the cooperation of the international Anti-ISIL-coalition with Rojava militias,  and support of Islamist Syrian Civil War parties hostile towards Rojava,   in past times even including ISIL.
Syria ceasefire has failed as civilians killed daily: UN
In the perception of much of the Turkish public, the Rojava federal project as well as U. Turkish police responded with tear gas and water cannons, and live fire in the southern province of Adana , killing protestors.
During the attack, a group of ISIL fighters were seen atop granary silos on the Turkish side of the border. Soon afterwards, the Turkish Army regained control of the border crossing and silos area. During the attack two civilians wounded. On 15 February , Turkey hit again Kurdish forces in Syria. A Turkish Foreign Ministry spokesman said the strikes came after a border security outpost in the Hatay area was attacked.
Turkish military said that it was retaliating to fire coming from the region. The attack targeted a convoy of military vehicles. Turkish Prime Minister Ahmet Davutoglu and President Erdogan blamed a Syrian Kurdish militia fighter working with Kurdish militants inside Turkey for a suicide car bombing, and vowed retaliation in both Syria and Iraq.
On February 22, , U. On Feb. On 4 March , the YPG militia said that Turkey's tanks had fired dozens of shells at its positions in the area of Afrin in northwest Syria. Special Operation Forces were flying U.
On 27 March an audio tape recording of high-level Turkish officials discussing Turkey's Syria strategy was released on YouTube. YouTube was subsequently blocked in Turkey. The de facto "declaration of war" is to take the form of two separate motions—one on Iraq and one on Syria, which would authorize Turkish troops to invade those countries.
After two days of heated debate, the motion passed — On June 26, Erdogan said he would "never allow the establishment of a Kurdish state in northern Syria". Leaked plans stated that, sometime during the first couple of weeks of July, up to 18 thousand troops would invade Syria via the Jarablus and Aazaz border crossings, areas in the hands of ISIL and the Free Syrian Army, respectively, and set up a buffer zone to which refugees could be repatriated.
Limiting intervention to airstrikes has also been discussed. In the wake of the major military advances that Syrian government forces and Syrian Democratic Forces made against jihadists during the Northern Aleppo offensive February , Ankara called for a safe zone and " No-fly zone ", "free from clashes", in northern Aleppo governorate.
Only, German Chancellor Angela Merkel said, that such a "safe zone" would be "helpful in the current situation.
In February , Turkey and Saudi Arabia were pressing for ground operations in Syria, hoping for the involvement of the U.
On 24 August , the Turkish armed forces, supported by the U.
Turkey shelled Syrian Kurdish forces in the region during all the week before the attack, determined not to let them fill the vacuum if ISIS leaves. Turkey said the operation was an act of self-defence, in response to Isis shelling of Turkish border towns and suicide bombings and attacks targeting Turkish nationals.
Both Manbij and Jarablus are west of the river. Syrian Kurdish forces said that the Turkish operation is motivated more by the desire to stop their advance at Jarablus than by anti-ISIS sentiment. On 7 October , Turkish forces launched an operation to establish observation posts in the northern Idlib Governorate ,  in coordination with Russia.
Acting U. If there's no ISIS, that's not our mandate. So that is an important distinction. We have always made it in any kind of conversation we've been having with any ally on Syria.
'An unbelievable mess': who's who in the Syria-Turkey conflict?
So an agreement can not be reached about struggle against them". He added that since the US-backed Kurdish fighters in Syria had not left the town of Manbij yet, as agreed in a US-Turkish deal and the Americans doesn't remove them, Turkey will do it.
Indeed, other senior American officials have reaffirmed US support for the Kurdish forces. He said specifically, "My concern now is that our partners have to believe that we are in it thick and thin.
It will set a difficult stage for future partnerships.
Turkey and syria crisis pdf995
A deal without Assad isn't realistic. On 9 January , Turkey summoned Russian and Iranian ambassadors to express its disturbance over ongoing military operations of the Syrian Army in the Idlib Governorate.
Al-Abadi, addressing journalists in Baghdad, said, "We warn Turkey if they want to enter Iraq, they will end up becoming fragmented. We do not want to fight Turkey. We do not want a confrontation with Turkey.
Kurdish–Turkish conflict (1978–present)
God forbid, even if we engage in war with them, the Turks will pay a heavy price. They will be damaged. Yes, we too will be damaged, but whenever a country fights a neighboring country, there will be no winner, both will end up losing.
Erdogan said that "a future operation will have not [only] a Syrian dimension, [but] also an Iraqi dimension.
There are the Tal Afar and Sinjar situations [in Iraq].
We also have kin in Mosul. The U. On April 2 and 3, , the families of U. State Department to leave several areas of Turkey for their security.