Defining And Non Defining Relative Clauses Grammar Pdfs

Defining and non defining relative clauses grammar pdfs

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Fridges were especially useful for storing perishable substances such as milk, which had previously been the cause of thousands of deaths every year in the big cities of the world. In the above sentence, would the antecedent of the relative pronoun which be "milk" or "perishable substances such as milk". I get confused whenever I try to identify the antecedents of relative pronouns with two or more NPs joined together.

Apparently milk wasn't the only transmitter of dangerous pathogens. The CDC has an article , "Achievements in Public Health, ," which says, "During the early 20th century, contaminated food, milk, and water caused many foodborne infections, including typhoid fever, tuberculosis, botulism, and scarlet fever. An article at MilkFacts.

Defining and non defining relative clauses grammar pdfs

Once we understand the ideas behind the sentence more fully, we can feel more confident, certain, in fact, that the author didn't intend milk to be the sole antecedent. Non-restrictive relative clauses give us additional information about a noun that has already been identified, but this information is not essential for the sentence to make sense.

Because of this, non-restrictive relative clauses are set apart from the rest of the sentence by commas. The phrase says "big cities of the world" and it is placed just after milk.

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It leads to believe that it is specifically talking about problems regarding the consumption of milk in big cities, like Chicago and other US cities , which were actually largely quench because of the introduction of pasteurization , for which refrigeration is necessary.

We can rephrase the sentence in a way that is much closer to perishable substances than milk : Fridges were especially useful for storing perishable substances, which had previously been the cause of thousands of deaths every year in the big cities of the world, such as milk. Hence my "leads to believe" in the previous paragraph. However, it could be that the author is not talking only about milk in that clause.

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The Farlex Grammar Book. Home Questions Tags Users Unanswered. Asked 4 months ago. Active 4 months ago.

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Viewed times. Alberto 1 1 silver badge 12 12 bronze badges. Kinam99 Kinam99 65 3 3 bronze badges. Thanks for the reply.

Defining and non defining relative clauses grammar pdfs

Would there be a some kind of a rule for determining the antecedent of relative expressions? Non-defining relatives the kind with a comma, like your example allow a wide range of antecedents from full noun phrases to clauses.

Your Answer

Defining relatives by contrast allow only nominals noun phrases excluding any determiners, but including modifiers. In the latter case, it's usually the nominal that is nearest to the relative pronoun, though there are a few minor exceptions to that. Defining relatives can exceptionally allow superlative adjectives and integrated prepositions as antecedent.

There is no possible syntactic method of determining the exact referent of which.

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As such, it's open to semantic interpretation. I'd say that the antecedent is the clause "storing perishable substances such as milk".

Defining and non defining relative clauses grammar pdfs

It was the storing that had caused thousands of deaths, not the perishable substances such as milk which if not stored would not have caused the deaths. This we know. If the sentence is confusing, recast. It leads to believe that it is specifically talking about problems regarding the consumption on milk in big cities, like Chicago and other US cities , which were actually largely quench because of the introduction of pasteurization , for which refrigeration is necessary.

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JanusBahsJacquet We can safely assume that if it was happening in every major city in the US it was happening everywhere else. How many countries do you need till we can assert that?

We can rephrase the sentence in a way that is much closer to perishable substances and not milk : Fridges were especially useful for storing perishable substances, which had previously been the cause of thousands of deaths every year in the big cities of the world, such as milk.

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Hence my "leads to believe". Of course, I might be wrong. The noun in question is milk , in this case. Addendum The phrase says "big cities of the world" and it is placed just after milk.

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Alberto Alberto 1 1 silver badge 12 12 bronze badges. Well, the actual antecedent is probably the gerund noun phrase storing perishable substances such as milk , which is the object of the preposition for , and which includes but is not limited to milk as the cause for all those deaths. Did milk really kill 'thousands of people'?

Defining and Non-Defining Relative Clauses - English Grammar

John Lawler So the sentence is either wrongly constructed or nonsensical? OK, but did it really 'kill thousands of people', or did you make that up?

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Defining and non defining relative clauses grammar pdfs

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