- Hitler and the rise of the nazi party frank mcdonough pdf995
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- Nazi Party
The Nazi Party emerged from the German nationalist , racist and populist Freikorps paramilitary culture, which fought against the communist uprisings in post- World War I Germany. Pseudo-scientific racist theories were central to Nazism, expressed in the idea of a "people's community" Volksgemeinschaft.
To protect the supposed purity and strength of the Aryan race, the Nazis sought to exterminate Jews , Romani , Poles and most other Slavs , along with the physically and mentally handicapped.
They disenfranchised and segregated homosexuals , Africans , Jehovah's Witnesses and political opponents. Hitler rapidly established a totalitarian regime     known as the Third Reich. Following the defeat of the Third Reich at the conclusion of World War II in Europe, the party was "declared to be illegal" by the Allied powers ,  who carried out denazification in the years after the war both in Germany and in territories occupied by Nazi forces.
The use of any symbols associated with the party is now outlawed in many European countries, including Germany and Austria. The term Parteigenosse party member was commonly used among Nazis, with its corresponding feminine form Parteigenossin.
Hitler and the rise of the nazi party frank mcdonough pdf995
The term was in use before the rise of the party as a colloquial and derogatory word for a backward peasant , an awkward and clumsy person. It derived from Ignaz, a shortened version of Ignatius ,   which was a common name in the Nazis' home region of Bavaria.
Opponents seized on this, and the long-existing Sozi , to attach a dismissive nickname to the National Socialists. In , when Adolf Hitler assumed power in the German government, the usage of "Nazi" diminished in Germany, although Austrian anti-Nazis continued to use the term,  and the use of " Nazi Germany " and "Nazi regime" was popularised by anti-Nazis and German exiles abroad. Thereafter, the term spread into other languages and eventually was brought back to Germany after World War II.
On 7 March , Anton Drexler , an avid German nationalist, formed a branch of this league in Munich.
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Drexler followed the views of militant nationalists of the day, such as opposing the Treaty of Versailles , having antisemitic , anti-monarchist and anti-Marxist views, as well as believing in the superiority of Germans whom they claimed to be part of the Aryan " master race " Herrenvolk.
However, he also accused international capitalism of being a Jewish-dominated movement and denounced capitalists for war profiteering in World War I. Drexler's movement received attention and support from some influential figures.
Supporter Dietrich Eckart , a well-to-do journalist, brought military figure Felix Graf von Bothmer , a prominent supporter of the concept of "national socialism", to address the movement.
On 5 January , Drexler created a new political party and proposed it should be named the "German Socialist Workers' Party", but Harrer objected to the term "socialist"; so the term was removed and the party was named the German Workers' Party Deutsche Arbeiterpartei , DAP.
As early as , the party was raising money by selling a tobacco called Anti-Semit. Members of the DAP saw themselves as fighting against " Bolshevism " and anyone considered a part of or aiding so-called " international Jewry ". The DAP was a comparatively small group with fewer than 60 members.
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Hitler was assigned to influence other soldiers and to infiltrate the DAP. In vehemently attacking the man's arguments, Hitler made an impression on the other party members with his oratorical skills; according to Hitler, the "professor" left the hall acknowledging unequivocal defeat. All were later prominent in the Nazi regime.
Hitler later claimed to be the seventh party member he was in fact the seventh executive member of the party's central committee  and he would later wear the Golden Party Badge number one. Anton Drexler drafted a letter to Hitler in —which was never sent—that contradicts Hitler's later claim:.
He was the second speaker of the evening, and spoke to people. With the support of Anton Drexler, Hitler became chief of propaganda for the party in early Such was the significance of this particular move in publicity that Karl Harrer resigned from the party in disagreement.
In , the Nazi Party officially announced that only persons of "pure Aryan descent [ rein arischer Abkunft ]" could become party members and if the person had a spouse, the spouse also had to be a "racially pure" Aryan.
Party members could not be related either directly or indirectly to a so-called "non-Aryan". Some members were even sentenced to death. Hitler quickly became the party's most active orator, appearing in public as a speaker 31 times within the first year after his self-discovery.
Hitler & the Rise of the Nazi Party
Hitler's talent as an orator and his ability to draw new members, combined with his characteristic ruthlessness, soon made him the dominant figure. However, while Hitler and Eckart were on a fundraising trip to Berlin in June , a mutiny broke out within the party in Munich. The committee members realised that his resignation would mean the end of the party. Hitler continued to face some opposition within the NSDAP, as his opponents had Hermann Esser expelled from the party and they printed 3, copies of a pamphlet attacking Hitler as a traitor to the party.
Under this principle, the party was a highly centralised entity that functioned strictly from the top down, with Hitler at the apex as the party's absolute leader.
Hitler saw the party as a revolutionary organisation, whose aim was the overthrow of the Weimar Republic , which he saw as controlled by the socialists, Jews and the " November criminals " who had betrayed the German soldiers in The SA "storm troopers", also known as "Brownshirts" were founded as a party militia in and began violent attacks on other parties. For Hitler, the twin goals of the party were always German nationalist expansionism and antisemitism.
This was symbolised by the adoption as the party emblem of the swastika or Hakenkreuz. In German nationalist circles, the swastika was considered a symbol of an " Aryan race " and it symbolised the replacement of the Christian Cross with allegiance to a National Socialist State.
The Nazi Party grew significantly during and , partly through Hitler's oratorical skills, partly through the SA's appeal to unemployed young men, and partly because there was a backlash against socialist and liberal politics in Bavaria as Germany's economic problems deepened and the weakness of the Weimar regime became apparent.
Nazi rallies were often held in beer halls, where downtrodden men could get free beer.
hitler and the rise of the nazi party
The Hitler Youth was formed for the children of party members. The party also formed groups in other parts of Germany. On 31 October , a party with similar policies and objectives came into power in Italy, the National Fascist Party , under the leadership of the charismatic Benito Mussolini.
The Fascists, like the Nazis, promoted a national rebirth of their country, as they opposed communism and liberalism; appealed to the working-class; opposed the Treaty of Versailles ; and advocated the territorial expansion of their country. The Italian Fascists used a straight-armed Roman salute and wore black-shirted uniforms. Hitler was inspired by Mussolini and the Fascists, borrowing their use of the straight-armed salute as a Nazi salute. When the Fascists came to power in in Italy through their coup attempt called the " March on Rome ", Hitler began planning his own coup.
Hitler and the Rise of the Nazi Party
In January , France occupied the Ruhr industrial region as a result of Germany's failure to meet its reparations payments. The reaction to these events was an upsurge of nationalist sentiment. Nazi Party membership grew sharply to about 20, In this, he was influenced by former General Erich Ludendorff , who had become a supporter—though not a member—of the Nazis.
This so-called Beer Hall Putsch attempt failed almost at once when the local Reichswehr commanders refused to support it.
On the morning of 9 November, the Nazis staged a march of about 2, supporters through Munich in an attempt to rally support. Troops opened fire and 16 Nazis were killed. Hitler, Ludendorff and a number of others were arrested and were tried for treason in March Hitler and his associates were given very lenient prison sentences.
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While Hitler was in prison, he wrote his semi-autobiographical political manifesto Mein Kampf "My Struggle". Adolf Hitler was released from prison on 20 December On 16 February , Hitler convinced the Bavarian authorities to lift the ban on the NSDAP and the party was formally refounded on 26 February , with Hitler as its undisputed leader. The new Nazi Party was no longer a paramilitary organisation and disavowed any intention of taking power by force.
In any case, the economic and political situation had stabilised and the extremist upsurge of had faded, so there was no prospect of further revolutionary adventures.
The Nazi Party of was divided into the "Leadership Corps" Korps der politischen Leiter appointed by Hitler and the general membership Parteimitglieder. The party and the SA were kept separate and the legal aspect of the party's work was emphasised.
In a sign of this, the party began to admit women. The SA and the SS members the latter founded in as Hitler's bodyguard, and known originally as the Schutzkommando had to all be regular party members. In the s, the Nazi Party expanded beyond its Bavarian base.
Catholic Bavaria maintained its right-wing nostalgia for a Catholic monarch; [ citation needed ] and Westphalia , along with working-class "Red Berlin", were always the Nazis' weakest areas electorally, even during the Third Reich itself. Depressed working-class areas such as Thuringia also produced a strong Nazi vote, while the workers of the Ruhr and Hamburg largely remained loyal to the Social Democrats , the Communist Party of Germany or the Catholic Centre Party.
Nuremberg remained a Nazi Party stronghold, and the first Nuremberg Rally was held there in These rallies soon became massive displays of Nazi paramilitary power and attracted many recruits.
The small business class was receptive to Hitler's antisemitism, since it blamed Jewish big business for its economic problems. University students, disappointed at being too young to have served in the War of — and attracted by the Nazis' radical rhetoric, also became a strong Nazi constituency.
By , the party had , members. The party's nominal Deputy Leader was Rudolf Hess , but he had no real power in the party. Beneath the Leadership Corps were the party's regional leaders, the Gauleiters , each of whom commanded the party in his Gau "region". Goebbels began his ascent through the party hierarchy as Gauleiter of Berlin-Brandenburg in Beneath the Gauleiter were lower-level officials, the Kreisleiter "county leaders" , Zellenleiter "cell leaders" and Blockleiter "block leaders".
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This was a strictly hierarchical structure in which orders flowed from the top and unquestioning loyalty was given to superiors. Only the SA retained some autonomy. Being composed largely of unemployed workers, many SA men took the Nazis' socialist rhetoric seriously.
At this time, the Hitler salute borrowed from the Italian fascists and the greeting "Heil Hitler! The Nazis contested elections to the national parliament the Reichstag and to the state legislature the Landtage from , although at first with little success. State elections produced similar results.
Despite these poor results and despite Germany's relative political stability and prosperity during the later s, the Nazi Party continued to grow. This was partly because Hitler, who had no administrative ability, left the party organisation to the head of the secretariat, Philipp Bouhler , the party treasurer Franz Xaver Schwarz and business manager Max Amann.
The party had a capable propaganda head in Gregor Strasser , who was promoted to national organizational leader in January These men gave the party efficient recruitment and organizational structures. As Hitler became the recognised head of the German nationalists, other groups declined or were absorbed. Despite these strengths, the Nazi Party might never have come to power had it not been for the Great Depression and its effects on Germany.
By , the German economy was beset with mass unemployment and widespread business failures.
The Social Democrats and Communists were bitterly divided and unable to formulate an effective solution: this gave the Nazis their opportunity and Hitler's message, blaming the crisis on the Jewish financiers and the Bolsheviks , resonated with wide sections of the electorate.
At the September Reichstag elections , the Nazis won Hitler proved to be a highly effective campaigner, pioneering the use of radio and aircraft for this purpose.