Xochicalco is a pre-Columbian archaeological site in the western part of the Mexican state of Morelos.
The name Xochicalco may be translated from Nahuatl as "in the house of Flowers". The site is located 38 km southwest of Cuernavaca.
The apogee of Xochicalco came after the fall of Teotihuacan and it has been speculated that Xochicalco may have played a part in the fall of the Teotihuacan empire.
Xochicalco - Temple of the Feathered Serpent
The main ceremonial center is atop an artificially leveled hill, with remains of residential structures, mostly unexcavated, on long terraces covering the slopes. The site was first occupied by BC, but did not develop into an urban center until the Epiclassic period AD — Nearly all the standing architecture at the site was built at this time.
At its peak, the city may have had a population of up to 20, people. Xochicalco was founded in about AD by the Olmeca-Xicallanca, which are a Mayan group of traders from Campeche, at a site that gave them an excellent position along several of the major Mesoamerican trade routes.
The city-state had a population of 10, to 15, people, many of whom were engaged in craft production and long-distance trade. It was an important fortressed commercial and religious center following the decline of the great Meso-American city states. The poor farming conditions in the area show that it was likely built for defense purposes and trading.
A Triple Terrace Citadel City
The architecture and iconography of Xochicalco show affinities with Teotihuacan, the Maya area, and the Matlatzinca culture of the Toluca Valley.
Of special interest are sculptured reliefs on the sides of some buildings. The Temple of the Feathered Serpent has fine stylized depictions of that deity in a style which includes apparent influences of Teotihuacan and Maya art.
The high taluds of the pyramid bear relief carvings that depict towns that paid tribute to Xochicalco as well as several seated figures that look Mayan. It has been speculated that Xochicalco may have had a community of artists from other parts of Mesoamerica.
File:Xochicalco, Temple of the Feathered Serpent, Maya ruler (20498593528).jpg
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Categories : Feathered Serpent Quetzalcoatl Xochicalco. Namespaces File Discussion.
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