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The tale plays with logic , giving the story lasting popularity with adults as well as with children. One of the best-known and most popular works of English-language fiction, its narrative course, structure, characters , and imagery have been enormously influential in both popular culture and literature, especially in the fantasy genre.
Alice was published in , three years after Charles Lutwidge Dodgson and the Reverend Robinson Duckworth rowed in a boat, on 4 July  this popular date of the "golden afternoon"  might be a confusion or even another Alice-tale, for that particular day was cool, cloudy and rainy  , up the Isis with the three young daughters of Henry Liddell the Vice-Chancellor of Oxford University and Dean of Christ Church : Lorina Charlotte Liddell aged 13, born "Prima" in the book's prefatory verse ; Alice Pleasance Liddell aged 10, born "Secunda" in the prefatory verse ; Edith Mary Liddell aged 8, born "Tertia" in the prefatory verse.
The journey began at Folly Bridge , Oxford and ended five miles away in the village of Godstow.
During the trip Charles Dodgson told the girls a story that featured a bored little girl named Alice who goes looking for an adventure. The girls loved it, and Alice Liddell asked Dodgson to write it down for her. He began writing the manuscript of the story the next day, although that earliest version is lost to history.
The girls and Dodgson took another boat trip a month later when he elaborated the plot to the story of Alice, and in November he began working on the manuscript in earnest. To add the finishing touches he researched natural history for the animals presented in the book, and then had the book examined by other children—particularly the children of George MacDonald. He added his own illustrations but approached John Tenniel to illustrate the book for publication, telling him that the story had been well liked by children.
But before Alice received her copy, Dodgson was already preparing it for publication and expanding the 15,word original to 27, words,  most notably adding the episodes about the Cheshire Cat and the Mad Hatter's Tea Party.
Chapter One — Down the Rabbit Hole : Alice , a seven-year-old girl, is feeling bored and drowsy while sitting on the riverbank with her elder sister.
She then notices a talking, clothed White Rabbit with a pocket watch run past. She follows it down a rabbit hole when suddenly she falls a long way to a curious hall with many locked doors of all sizes. She finds a small key to a door too small for her to fit through, but through it she sees an attractive garden.
She then discovers a bottle on a table labelled "DRINK ME," the contents of which cause her to shrink too small to reach the key which she has left on the table.
Alice is unhappy and, as she cries, her tears flood the hallway. After shrinking down again due to a fan she had picked up, Alice swims through her own tears and meets a Mouse , who is swimming as well. Chapter Three — The Caucus Race and a Long Tale : The sea of tears becomes crowded with other animals and birds that have been swept away by the rising waters. Alice and the other animals convene on the bank and the question among them is how to get dry again.
The Mouse gives them a very dry lecture on William the Conqueror. A Dodo decides that the best thing to dry them off would be a Caucus-Race, which consists of everyone running in a circle with no clear winner.
'Legendary' first edition of Alice in Wonderland set for auction at $2-3m
Alice eventually frightens all the animals away, unwittingly, by talking about her moderately ferocious cat. Mistaking her for his maidservant, Mary Ann, he orders Alice to go into the house and retrieve them. Inside the house she finds another little bottle and drinks from it; immediately she starts growing again. The horrified Rabbit orders his gardener, Bill the Lizard , to climb on the roof and go down the chimney.
Outside, Alice hears the voices of animals that have gathered to gawk at her giant arm. The crowd hurls pebbles at her, which turn into little cakes. Alice eats them, and they reduce her again in size.
Chapter Five — Advice from a Caterpillar : Alice comes upon a mushroom and sitting on it is a blue Caterpillar smoking a hookah. The Caterpillar questions Alice and she admits to her current identity crisis, compounded by her inability to remember a poem.
Before crawling away, the caterpillar tells Alice that one side of the mushroom will make her taller and the other side will make her shorter. She breaks off two pieces from the mushroom. One side makes her shrink smaller than ever, while another causes her neck to grow high into the trees, where a pigeon mistakes her for a serpent. With some effort, Alice brings herself back to her normal height.
She stumbles upon a small estate and uses the mushroom to reach a more appropriate height. Alice observes this transaction and, after a perplexing conversation with the frog, lets herself into the house. The Duchess's Cook is throwing dishes and making a soup that has too much pepper, which causes Alice, the Duchess, and her baby but not the cook or grinning Cheshire Cat to sneeze violently.
Alice is given the baby by the Duchess and to her surprise, the baby turns into a pig. The Cheshire Cat appears in a tree, directing her to the March Hare 's house. He disappears but his grin remains behind to float on its own in the air prompting Alice to remark that she has often seen a cat without a grin but never a grin without a cat. Chapter Seven — A Mad Tea-Party : Alice becomes a guest at a "mad" tea party along with the March Hare , the Hatter , and a very tired Dormouse who falls asleep frequently, only to be violently awakened moments later by the March Hare and the Hatter.
The characters give Alice many riddles and stories, including the famous ' Why is a raven like a writing desk? Alice becomes insulted and tired of being bombarded with riddles and she leaves claiming that it was the stupidest tea party that she had ever been to. Chapter Eight — The Queen's Croquet Ground : Alice leaves the tea party and enters the garden where she comes upon three living playing cards painting the white roses on a rose tree red because The Queen of Hearts hates white roses.
A procession of more cards, kings and queens and even the White Rabbit enters the garden.
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Alice then meets the King and Queen. The Queen, a figure difficult to please, introduces her signature phrase "Off with his head! Alice is invited or some might say ordered to play a game of croquet with the Queen and the rest of her subjects but the game quickly descends into chaos. Live flamingos are used as mallets and hedgehogs as balls and Alice once again meets the Cheshire Cat.
Carroll, Lewis, Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, 1866. Peter Harrington Rare Books.
The Queen of Hearts then orders the Cat to be beheaded, only to have her executioner complain that this is impossible since the head is all that can be seen of him. Because the cat belongs to the Duchess, the Queen is prompted to release the Duchess from prison to resolve the matter.
She ruminates on finding morals in everything around her. The Queen of Hearts dismisses her on the threat of execution and she introduces Alice to the Gryphon , who takes her to the Mock Turtle.
The Mock Turtle is very sad, even though he has no sorrow. He tries to tell his story about how he used to be a real turtle in school, which the Gryphon interrupts so they can play a game. Chapter Eleven — Who Stole the Tarts?
The jury is composed of various animals, including Bill the Lizard , the White Rabbit is the court's trumpeter, and the judge is the King of Hearts.
During the proceedings, Alice finds that she is steadily growing larger. The dormouse scolds Alice and tells her she has no right to grow at such a rapid pace and take up all the air. Alice scoffs and calls the dormouse's accusation ridiculous because everyone grows and she cannot help it. Meanwhile, witnesses at the trial include the Hatter, who displeases and frustrates the King through his indirect answers to the questioning, and the Duchess's cook.
Chapter Twelve — Alice's Evidence : Alice is then called up as a witness.
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She accidentally knocks over the jury box with the animals inside them and the King orders the animals be placed back into their seats before the trial continues.
The King and Queen order Alice to be gone, citing Rule 42 "All persons more than a mile high to leave the court" , but Alice disputes their judgement and refuses to leave.
She argues with the King and Queen of Hearts over the ridiculous proceedings, eventually refusing to hold her tongue, only to say, "It's not that I was the one who stole the tarts in the first place", in the process.
Finally, the Queen confirms that Alice was the culprit responsible of stealing the tarts after all which automatically pardons the Knave of Hearts of his charges , and shouts, "Off with her head! Alice's sister wakes her up from a dream, brushing what turns out to be some leaves and not a shower of playing cards from Alice's face. Alice leaves her sister on the bank to imagine all the curious happenings for herself.
Alice Liddell herself is there, while Carroll is caricatured as the Dodo because Dodgson stuttered when he spoke, he sometimes pronounced his last name as Dodo-Dodgson.
It has been suggested by Martin Gardner that The Hatter is a reference to Theophilus Carter , a furniture dealer known in Oxford , and that Tenniel apparently drew the Hatter to resemble Carter, on a suggestion of Carroll's. These are the Liddell sisters: Elsie is L.
The Mock Turtle speaks of a Drawling-master, "an old conger eel", who came once a week to teach "Drawling, Stretching, and Fainting in Coils". This is a reference to the art critic John Ruskin , who came once a week to the Liddell house to teach the children drawing , sketching , and painting in oils.
The children did, in fact, learn well; Alice Liddell, for one, produced a number of skilful watercolours. The Mock Turtle also sings "Turtle Soup".
Martin Gardner and other scholars have shown the book to be filled with many parodies of Victorian popular culture, suggesting it belongs in spirit with W.
Gilbert and Alfred Cellier 's Topsyturveydom.
15 Vintage Alice in Wonderland Book Covers and Illustrations
Most of the book's adventures may have been based on and influenced by people, situations and buildings in Oxford and at Christ Church , e. A carving of a griffon and rabbit, as seen in Ripon Cathedral , where Carroll's father was a canon, may have provided inspiration for the tale. Since Carroll was a mathematician at Christ Church, it has been suggested   that there are many references and mathematical concepts in both this story and Through the Looking-Glass ; examples include:.
Literary scholar Melanie Bayley asserted in the magazine New Scientist that Dodgson wrote Alice in Wonderland in its final form as a scathing satire on new modern mathematics that were emerging in the midth century.
It has been suggested by several people, including Martin Gardner and Selwyn Goodacre,  that Dodgson had an interest in the French language, choosing to make references and puns about it in the story. It is most likely that these are references to French lessons—a common feature of a Victorian middle-class girl's upbringing. For example, in the second chapter Alice posits that the mouse may be French. Pat's "Digging for apples" could be a cross-language pun , as pomme de terre literally; "apple of the earth" means potato and pomme means apple.
In the second chapter, Alice initially addresses the mouse as "O Mouse", based on her memory of the noun declensions "in her brother's Latin Grammar , 'A mouse — of a mouse — to a mouse — a mouse — O mouse! The sixth case, mure ablative is absent from Alice's recitation.
In the eighth chapter, three cards are painting the roses on a rose tree red, because they had accidentally planted a white-rose tree that The Queen of Hearts hates. Red roses symbolised the English House of Lancaster , while white roses were the symbol for their rival House of York. While the book has remained in print and continually inspires new adaptations, the cultural material from which it draws has become largely specialized knowledge.
Dr Leon Coward asserts the book 'suffers' from "readings which reflect today's fascination with postmodernism and psychology, rather than delving into an historically informed interpretation," and speculates that this has been partly driven by audiences encountering the narrative through a 'second-hand' source, explaining "our impressions of the original text are based on a multiplicity of reinterpretations.
We don't necessarily realise we're missing anything in understanding the original product, because we're usually never dealing with the original product. Carina Garland notes how the world is "expressed via representations of food and appetite", naming Alice's frequent desire for consumption of both food and words , her 'Curious Appetites'. After the riddle "Why is a raven like a writing-desk? Nina Auerbach discusses how the novel revolves around eating and drinking which "motivates much of her [Alice's] behaviour", for the story is essentially about things "entering and leaving her mouth".
The manuscript was illustrated by Dodgson himself who added 37 illustrations—printed in a facsimile edition in The first print run was destroyed or sold to America  at Carroll's request because he was dissatisfied with the quality. The book was reprinted and published in