Cambridge Latin Course Book 3 Stage 21 Vocabulary

Cambridge latin course book 3 stage 21 vocabulary

Cambridge latin course book 3 stage 21 vocabulary

We now leave the southern spa town of Aquae Sulis Bath and follow our characters to northern Britain. We accompany the two soldiers from Stage 22 as they flee back to Deva Chester after their adventures in love, and we also discover why Quintus rides north in a life-or-death escape.

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We rejoin our two slapstick Roman soldiers - Modestus and Strythio - on their journey north to their army barracks. Their road trip hits a few bumps, however, when they encounter a rickety bridge and a stubborn horse! A king without a crown, imprisoned and alone Is there any hope or justice for Cogidubnus? An old friend provokes Quintus to hatch a plan Salvius discovers Quintus' mercy mission to Agricola, the Roman governor of Britain Torture, flight, pursuit, and death - Quintus rides for his life Test your Vocabulary is against the clock and can be set to all words in this stage, up to this stage, etc.

Word Endings exercises are based on the Practising the Language section in the Books, and follow this format. Click here for more information. Word Endings activities are based on the Practising the Language section of each Stage, and all follow the same format.

Cambridge Latin Course Stage 21 Vocabulary

The user is given a sentence in English together with the same sentence in Latin, but with one or more endings to be chosen from a drop down list. In most exercises the endings omitted are restricted to one particular part of speech noun, verb or adjective.

For this type of exercise language information is provided. But in some exercises, all noun, verb and adjective endings are omitted. Practising the Language exercises are digital versions of exercises in the Cambridge Latin Course textbooks.

Cambridge Latin Bk. 3 Stage 21

Can you help? If you've found a link we could add please email us. A great map of Roman roads linking the main towns in Britain can be found on p.

The so-called Peutinger Table is a medieval copy of an ancient Roman road map of the Roman empire.

4th Edition Materials

The map is greatly squashed down and elongated so that it could fit on to a long roll. Can you spot the names of town and cities? Simple, solid information on Roman roads and construction with examples from Shropshire, England.

Stage 21 Vocabulary

The Hollywood image of soldiers on chariots rushing along the roads and wheel ruts caused by centuries of traffic Everyone should read this excellent website which gives the known or likely facts about Roman roads and debunks the myths. The planning, surveying and construction of Roman roads, with links to UK county maps showing Roman roads.

Detailed article from Oct British Archaeology magazine on Roman road-building. The article, for older surfers, higlights the fact that the roads are not quite as regular in line and construction as we sometimes like to believe. In addition: photo 1 ; and photo 2. As illustrated on p. Watling Street was one of the first major Roman roads, built in the mid-1st century A. Much of the road is still in use today: from a major road including parts of the M1, A2 and A Here's a map showing the route of Watling Street.

The Stories

Just imagine Ermine Street once looked like this! Much of the Roman road is now under A-roads and B-road , such as this section in Gloucestershire, but some parts are overgrown. The groma was used as a sighting device for roads, aqueducts and buildings. The weights on the end of each point of the crossbar sights were to make sure that the groma was kept perpendicular to the ground.

The chorobate was used to ensure a construction was level - a bit like a modern "spirit-level" without the bubble.

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This tool was over 10ft. Water poured into the long groove running down the middle of the top of the chorobate indicated when it was "level". The Romans used a device called a hodometer "road-measurer" to measure distances. An elaborate gear assembly caused a rounded pebble to fall into a metal bowl after each mile. The cart also had special wheels, 4 feet in diameter and A river-boat carrying barrels of wine.

It would have floated downstream and then been rowed back up. This sculpture was found at Neumagen on the River Moselle in Germany; it was a grave-monument to a Roman wine dealer of c.

Cambridge latin course book 3 stage 21 vocabulary

Now in the Rheinische Landesmuseum in nearby Trier. A real example of such a vessel has also been found! And at Neumagen they've built a terrific replica boat! A river-boat being loaded with sacks of corn, one of which is being poured out into a measuring barrel to check it contains the correct quantity.

Cambridge Latin Course, Unit 3: Stage 21 Vocabulary (in-book)

The boat is called the Isis Giminiana. Isis was a very common name for ships in antiquity, since the Egyptian fertility goddess, Isis, also protected sailors. Fresco from Ostia; now in the Vatican Museum. As featured on p.

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Unloading sacks of grain? Mosaic in-situ in the ruins of the Roman port of Ostia, near Rome; as seen on Stage 31's title-page. Medium sized Roman merchant ship of the end of the third century AD.

Illustration by John Pittaway.

Cambridge Latin Course Unit 3 Stage 21 Vocabulary

Known as the "Blackfriars Ship 1", remains of this cargo vessel - which had sailed at sea - was found in London. Dating to AD. More info here.

Super webpage on Roman cargo boats by Axel Nelson. His Norwegian text is followed by an English translation. Report on a great discovery. River barges floated downstream with the current Report on the ongoing excavations at the "underwater Pompeii": the site of 30 Roman cargo ships buried at Pisa in Italy. Terrific possible reconstruction of the libunica or liburnia which was a relatively small warship with two banks of oars thus a type of bireme that was renowned for its speed and agility.

Developed by the Liburnians from modern Croatia , it was adopted by the Roman navy from the time of Augustus. Another view showing arrangement of rowers who sit on the same level, although the oars sit at two levels. These reconstructions are based on the ships depicted on Trajan's Column in Rome. The famous wall-paintings of biremes from the House of the Vettii in Pompeii show biremes, but there is not sufficient detail to specify the type of bireme.

A quadrireme was a large Roman warship, the exact form of which is unknown, but which was probably fitted with either a single bank of oars with 4 men at each oar, or two banks of oars , one above each other with 2 men at each oar - either system providing 4 men close to each other - and so satisfying its designation as a quadrireme or a "4er".

Cambridge latin course book 3 stage 21 vocabulary

The systematic reckoning that there were four banks of oars, following from the known use of two banks in biremes and three banks in triremes, however, can no longer be applied on practical grounds. This ship was a development of the highly succesful Classical Greek trireme , a modern reconstruction of which has dispelled any doubts that such awkward-looking ships in this case with 3 banks of oars; 1 man at each oar could in fact be rowed.

Have you heard the one about the fleet? It's a classic!

Cambridge latin course book 3 stage 21 vocabulary

The Latin word for fleet, classis , derived from its original reference to one of the five wealth bands or "classes" that the early Romans had been divided into for purposes of military taxation. Later in the Roman period, its adjectival form, classicus or "classical" was applied to literature considered "top class" and worthy of imitation.

Practising the Language

And it's from this term refering to high quality literature that today's term "classic" and the alternative names for Latin and Greek - "Classics" - derive. In AD79 there were two imperial fleets at the ready: one based at Ravenna on the northern Adriatic coast of Italy, and the other based at Misenum in the Bay of Naples on the west coast. This website gives details, known from inscriptions, of the boats in the fleets.

Misenum, located at the end of a cape projecting out into the Bay of Naples, was the largest base of the Roman navy during the early empire. The only remains left of the fleet's presence at Misenum are those of a massive, underground cistern today known as the piscina mirabilis which once held the fresh drinking water needed for the thousands of sailors.

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The pillars supported the cistern's ceiling, and would have been submerged by the water that poured into the cistern from an aqueduct. This map of the Bay of Naples locates Misenum and the other main sites scroll down to view.

An Italian website, but no translation is necessary to wonder at the fantastic images of Roman ships collected here. Certain small carts could be pulled by hand - either by slaves or owners who couldn't afford mules or even more expensive oxen or horses. Here's a similar hand-cart. The reconstructions were made for the TV series "Rome" based on Roman frescoes, mosaics, and sculpture.

Distance Learners

The remains of a 2-wheeled Roman, horse-drawn cart from the House of Menander in Pompeii, buried in the eruption of AD The 1. The four "pillars" on which the cart appears to be resting are unremoved volcanic stone that covered the city in the eruption. The remains have now been further excavated and amalgamated into this reconstruction which today sits in the stables of the House of Menander.

Cambridge latin course book 3 stage 21 vocabulary

Another simple cart; note the solid wheels made of planks joined together and sawn into a circle. In the villa at Piazza Armerina in Sicily.

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Reconstruction of a Roman goods wagon; the open sides suggest a hay-wagon or goods carried in sacks, jars or boxes.